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      string(31) "Economist Michel Husson is dead"
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Michel Husson died on July 18, in Corvara in Badia (Italy), at the age of 72. The sudden death of this atypical economist-statistician, non-dogmatic Marxist, is a heavy loss for the heterodox community. The smoothness of his analyzes, his humor and his competence were very appreciated and unique.

Director of INSEE, Michel Husson worked in the Forecasting Department of the Ministry of the Economy during the 1980s, before joining, in 1990, the Institute for Economic and Social Research (IRES), an organization serving unions. He was also an activist. Politics first: he was one of the pillars of the economic working group of the Revolutionary Communist League from 1980 to 2006, before breaking with it, pointing out his responsibility for the failure of the political recomposition following the victory of the no to the European constitutional treaty, in 2005. He then supported the campaigns of the Left Front and then of Jean-Luc Mélenchon, in 2017. Associative, then: he became involved in Attac, the Copernic Foundation, Les Economistes atterrés …

Also read our archive (2007): Michel Husson, “official economist” of the LCR, slams the door of his party

For twenty years, he has regularly posted dozens of publications on his site – a valuable mine of information. The central aim of his work is to“Ensure that everyone has a decent job and / or income, access to quality public services and (…) a decent planet ”. This goes through “Employment first”, but also by rebalancing the sharing of added value in favor of wages. In terms of employment, he clearly demonstrated the ineffectiveness of the labor cost reduction policies carried out since the 1980s, and in particular the exemption from contributions. He also supported the contribution as a socialized salary.

Beyond capitalism

Rejecting the neoliberal methods of forced part-time work and universal income, both regressive, among other things in relation to women’s right to employment, and recognizing the effectiveness of the Robien and Aubry laws on the reduction of working time, Michel Husson wanted go further, with an RTT without loss of salary, with the obligation of proportional hiring and without the increased flexibility that has accompanied these laws. According to him, we must intervene on the primary distribution of income and not, as economists like Thomas Piketty would like, on redistribution and taxation.

These measures are part of an assumed desire to go beyond capitalism. Neoliberalism, with its economic, social and ecological consequences, constitutes the coherent outcome, but this coherence is a source of instability and recurrent crises. Since the 1980s, capitalists have used profits in a non-productive way (dividends, buybacks of shares, etc.). The cause is the insufficiency of outlets and the absence of opportunities for sufficient capital appreciation, which induce a weakness in productive investments, combining with a fall in the share of wages and an increase in the rate of profit. Financialization, therefore.

You have 24.36% of this article to read. The rest is for subscribers only.

" } ["wfw"]=> array(1) { ["commentrss"]=> string(56) "https://movs.world/economist-michel-husson-is-dead/feed/" } ["slash"]=> array(1) { ["comments"]=> string(1) "0" } ["summary"]=> string(104) "Michel Husson, former static engineer and economist, died July 18, 2021. WIKIPEDIA Michel Husson died..." ["atom_content"]=> string(4436) "

Michel Husson died on July 18, in Corvara in Badia (Italy), at the age of 72. The sudden death of this atypical economist-statistician, non-dogmatic Marxist, is a heavy loss for the heterodox community. The smoothness of his analyzes, his humor and his competence were very appreciated and unique.

Director of INSEE, Michel Husson worked in the Forecasting Department of the Ministry of the Economy during the 1980s, before joining, in 1990, the Institute for Economic and Social Research (IRES), an organization serving unions. He was also an activist. Politics first: he was one of the pillars of the economic working group of the Revolutionary Communist League from 1980 to 2006, before breaking with it, pointing out his responsibility for the failure of the political recomposition following the victory of the no to the European constitutional treaty, in 2005. He then supported the campaigns of the Left Front and then of Jean-Luc Mélenchon, in 2017. Associative, then: he became involved in Attac, the Copernic Foundation, Les Economistes atterrés …

Also read our archive (2007): Michel Husson, “official economist” of the LCR, slams the door of his party

For twenty years, he has regularly posted dozens of publications on his site – a valuable mine of information. The central aim of his work is to“Ensure that everyone has a decent job and / or income, access to quality public services and (…) a decent planet ”. This goes through “Employment first”, but also by rebalancing the sharing of added value in favor of wages. In terms of employment, he clearly demonstrated the ineffectiveness of the labor cost reduction policies carried out since the 1980s, and in particular the exemption from contributions. He also supported the contribution as a socialized salary.

Beyond capitalism

Rejecting the neoliberal methods of forced part-time work and universal income, both regressive, among other things in relation to women’s right to employment, and recognizing the effectiveness of the Robien and Aubry laws on the reduction of working time, Michel Husson wanted go further, with an RTT without loss of salary, with the obligation of proportional hiring and without the increased flexibility that has accompanied these laws. According to him, we must intervene on the primary distribution of income and not, as economists like Thomas Piketty would like, on redistribution and taxation.

These measures are part of an assumed desire to go beyond capitalism. Neoliberalism, with its economic, social and ecological consequences, constitutes the coherent outcome, but this coherence is a source of instability and recurrent crises. Since the 1980s, capitalists have used profits in a non-productive way (dividends, buybacks of shares, etc.). The cause is the insufficiency of outlets and the absence of opportunities for sufficient capital appreciation, which induce a weakness in productive investments, combining with a fall in the share of wages and an increase in the rate of profit. Financialization, therefore.

You have 24.36% of this article to read. The rest is for subscribers only.

" ["date_timestamp"]=> int(1628526748) } [1]=> array(14) { ["title"]=> string(67) "In Tunisia, “the joy of a people who could no longer suffocate”" ["link"]=> string(80) "https://movs.world/in-tunisia-the-joy-of-a-people-who-could-no-longer-suffocate/" ["comments"]=> string(88) "https://movs.world/in-tunisia-the-joy-of-a-people-who-could-no-longer-suffocate/#respond" ["dc"]=> array(1) { ["creator"]=> string(11) "Susan Hally" } ["pubdate"]=> string(31) "Mon, 09 Aug 2021 11:23:22 +0000" ["category"]=> string(39) "OpinionsjoylongerpeoplesuffocateTunisia" ["guid"]=> string(80) "https://movs.world/in-tunisia-the-joy-of-a-people-who-could-no-longer-suffocate/" ["description"]=> string(86) "Tunisians express their joy in front of Parliament on July 26, 2021 in Tunis, after..." ["content"]=> array(1) { ["encoded"]=> string(8097) "

Tribune. My country, a place of life and weaknesses. Right now he is shaking and attracting the attention of the world. When you’re on a tightrope, you want there to be as much light as possible so you don’t trip. So I ask myself questions and try to understand.

The day before the operation led by the Tunisian head of state, on the evening of July 25, in what situation the country was, in what context were we evolving and what could we foresee of our future ? We were in the middle of a long process of degradation which, with the socio-economic and health debacle, announced a near disaster whose face no one knew it would take. From disappointment to blockage, in failure again, we went round in circles to the point of dizziness, the hands of the clock also turned and time was playing against our vital interests that political leaders without credibility seemed in no hurry to defend.

Article reserved for our subscribers Read also Tunisia plunged into the unknown after President Kaïs Saïed’s coup

Stuck in the crisis, everyone was looking for an outcome, imagining the scenarios, no one could find. Cacophony, yes, but clear vision, period! Asphyxiated, we refused to die and did not see how to survive. Suddenly, Kaïs Saïed opens a door to the unknown. The unknown and the dose of air that could possibly be there. Only this eventuality explains the joy that followed, that of a people who could no longer suffocate. Joy expressing the instinct of life of a bruised social body, victim of politicians whose mediocrity is matched only by arrogance. Door on the unknown in the strong sense, opened by a man who surrounds himself in mystery. As many opportunities offered as there are pitfalls and pitfalls. Uncertainties, waiting that still lasts.

A grand scheme of bondage

However, in my eyes, today, a certainty: we Tunisians who have just crossed the post-revolution decade, a small political experience, shocked and chaotic of course, but experience nonetheless. Acquired, among other things, the right to think, to choose. And here I am thinking of those great civilizational choices towards which we have become accustomed to orienting ourselves under the effect of international power relations and the very evolution of our societies.

I am referring to political Islam – or Islamism – and the place it should take in building democracy. It is precisely on this subject that the past decade has opened our eyes to what this current carries in it, to the immense pressure it can exert on a society to make it go in the wrong direction, to freeze it in patterns. so-called “identity”, justifying interference in individual consciousness, submission to a diktat draped in religiosity and fidelity to the ancestral past.

Article reserved for our subscribers Read also In Tunisia, President Saïed treats his soldiers

This current which instrumentalizes the religious since its creation gives itself the right to say the licit and the illicit in all the fields. Born in Egypt a century ago, arrived in Tunisia fifty years ago, he took advantage of the weaknesses of society, dysfunctions, injustices and frustrations, in order to attract a growing part of the population; he leaned on an ideological base which he made his business, where he mixes politics and religion to the point of confusing them by perverting them and ensuring his grip on both, in a great pattern of servitude. Since his time in business, with us, he has shown how voracious he can be, thirsty for money and guardianship of conscience.

Invent a path of peace

However, it is by no means said that the operation carried out by Kaïs Saïed on July 25 marks the end of this current. It takes much more than that for Islamism to be defeated. There needs to be a general awakening that reaches hearts and minds, the birth of a collective reason that defines differently the relationship of man to himself, to God, to the city, to law and to duty.

In the meantime, one thing is certain, in my opinion: the popular jubilation of the night of July 25 means a deep fed up with regard to this political Islam which has ruled for ten years. This is a turning point. And perhaps also an invitation to those, many, who consider that its participation in power remains a necessary step for the construction of democracy, to re-examine their positions, to ask more questions about the nature of this current.

Article reserved for our subscribers Read also “Kaïs Saïed has the people with him”: in Sfax, Tunisian youth support the president’s coup

Today the world looks at us and judges us. We do not know when our sorrows will end, when and how we will get out of the rut, but we face ourselves and we undergo a test: will we be able to avoid violence and exclusion, invent a path of peace, find a living together where those who run the affairs are chosen on the basis of honesty, competence and not allegiance to anyone?

This is where the bet is imposed on me, in the fragility of the understanding which is mine in such circumstances. I bet on a start and on this experience gained during the tumultuous decade that we have just passed. I bet that we will know how to take the measure of things, remain united and vigilant, learn lessons, choose the least unfair path, the one which guarantees a dignified and free life.

Emna Belhaj Yahia is a novelist, member of the Tunisian Academy Beït al-Hikma and of the Parliament of French-speaking writers. His latest novel, In thirsty country, was released in June by Éditions Des Femmes (Paris) and Éditions Déméter (Tunis).

" } ["wfw"]=> array(1) { ["commentrss"]=> string(85) "https://movs.world/in-tunisia-the-joy-of-a-people-who-could-no-longer-suffocate/feed/" } ["slash"]=> array(1) { ["comments"]=> string(1) "0" } ["summary"]=> string(86) "Tunisians express their joy in front of Parliament on July 26, 2021 in Tunis, after..." ["atom_content"]=> string(8097) "

Tribune. My country, a place of life and weaknesses. Right now he is shaking and attracting the attention of the world. When you’re on a tightrope, you want there to be as much light as possible so you don’t trip. So I ask myself questions and try to understand.

The day before the operation led by the Tunisian head of state, on the evening of July 25, in what situation the country was, in what context were we evolving and what could we foresee of our future ? We were in the middle of a long process of degradation which, with the socio-economic and health debacle, announced a near disaster whose face no one knew it would take. From disappointment to blockage, in failure again, we went round in circles to the point of dizziness, the hands of the clock also turned and time was playing against our vital interests that political leaders without credibility seemed in no hurry to defend.

Article reserved for our subscribers Read also Tunisia plunged into the unknown after President Kaïs Saïed’s coup

Stuck in the crisis, everyone was looking for an outcome, imagining the scenarios, no one could find. Cacophony, yes, but clear vision, period! Asphyxiated, we refused to die and did not see how to survive. Suddenly, Kaïs Saïed opens a door to the unknown. The unknown and the dose of air that could possibly be there. Only this eventuality explains the joy that followed, that of a people who could no longer suffocate. Joy expressing the instinct of life of a bruised social body, victim of politicians whose mediocrity is matched only by arrogance. Door on the unknown in the strong sense, opened by a man who surrounds himself in mystery. As many opportunities offered as there are pitfalls and pitfalls. Uncertainties, waiting that still lasts.

A grand scheme of bondage

However, in my eyes, today, a certainty: we Tunisians who have just crossed the post-revolution decade, a small political experience, shocked and chaotic of course, but experience nonetheless. Acquired, among other things, the right to think, to choose. And here I am thinking of those great civilizational choices towards which we have become accustomed to orienting ourselves under the effect of international power relations and the very evolution of our societies.

I am referring to political Islam – or Islamism – and the place it should take in building democracy. It is precisely on this subject that the past decade has opened our eyes to what this current carries in it, to the immense pressure it can exert on a society to make it go in the wrong direction, to freeze it in patterns. so-called “identity”, justifying interference in individual consciousness, submission to a diktat draped in religiosity and fidelity to the ancestral past.

Article reserved for our subscribers Read also In Tunisia, President Saïed treats his soldiers

This current which instrumentalizes the religious since its creation gives itself the right to say the licit and the illicit in all the fields. Born in Egypt a century ago, arrived in Tunisia fifty years ago, he took advantage of the weaknesses of society, dysfunctions, injustices and frustrations, in order to attract a growing part of the population; he leaned on an ideological base which he made his business, where he mixes politics and religion to the point of confusing them by perverting them and ensuring his grip on both, in a great pattern of servitude. Since his time in business, with us, he has shown how voracious he can be, thirsty for money and guardianship of conscience.

Invent a path of peace

However, it is by no means said that the operation carried out by Kaïs Saïed on July 25 marks the end of this current. It takes much more than that for Islamism to be defeated. There needs to be a general awakening that reaches hearts and minds, the birth of a collective reason that defines differently the relationship of man to himself, to God, to the city, to law and to duty.

In the meantime, one thing is certain, in my opinion: the popular jubilation of the night of July 25 means a deep fed up with regard to this political Islam which has ruled for ten years. This is a turning point. And perhaps also an invitation to those, many, who consider that its participation in power remains a necessary step for the construction of democracy, to re-examine their positions, to ask more questions about the nature of this current.

Article reserved for our subscribers Read also “Kaïs Saïed has the people with him”: in Sfax, Tunisian youth support the president’s coup

Today the world looks at us and judges us. We do not know when our sorrows will end, when and how we will get out of the rut, but we face ourselves and we undergo a test: will we be able to avoid violence and exclusion, invent a path of peace, find a living together where those who run the affairs are chosen on the basis of honesty, competence and not allegiance to anyone?

This is where the bet is imposed on me, in the fragility of the understanding which is mine in such circumstances. I bet on a start and on this experience gained during the tumultuous decade that we have just passed. I bet that we will know how to take the measure of things, remain united and vigilant, learn lessons, choose the least unfair path, the one which guarantees a dignified and free life.

Emna Belhaj Yahia is a novelist, member of the Tunisian Academy Beït al-Hikma and of the Parliament of French-speaking writers. His latest novel, In thirsty country, was released in June by Éditions Des Femmes (Paris) and Éditions Déméter (Tunis).

" ["date_timestamp"]=> int(1628508202) } [2]=> array(14) { ["title"]=> string(79) "“Carbon neutrality will not be achieved in the construction sector in 2050”" ["link"]=> string(93) "https://movs.world/carbon-neutrality-will-not-be-achieved-in-the-construction-sector-in-2050/" ["comments"]=> string(101) "https://movs.world/carbon-neutrality-will-not-be-achieved-in-the-construction-sector-in-2050/#respond" ["dc"]=> array(1) { ["creator"]=> string(11) "Susan Hally" } ["pubdate"]=> string(31) "Mon, 09 Aug 2021 02:14:29 +0000" ["category"]=> string(50) "OpinionsachievedcarbonConstructionneutralitysector" ["guid"]=> string(93) "https://movs.world/carbon-neutrality-will-not-be-achieved-in-the-construction-sector-in-2050/" ["description"]=> string(0) "" ["content"]=> array(1) { ["encoded"]=> string(4988) "

Lhe “builders” have over the centuries been able to support the development of our societies, from the most rudimentary housing to today’s mega-cities, by inventing the techniques and technologies that have enabled major transformations. The builders of modern times, all those involved in construction, once again have the opportunity to be at the rendezvous of history by taking up the environmental challenge, vital for our common home.

A century before our era, the Roman Vitruvius laid down the principle of an architecture which was to imitate nature, in the right proportions. In the industrial era, the American architect Frank Lloyd Wright (1867-1959) or the ecological essayist Pierre Rabhi have never ceased to alert designers so that nature is not forgotten for the sole benefit of consumption. . It is still necessary today to draw inspiration from it in order to reduce our environmental footprint and achieve the national objective of a carbon neutral contribution by 2050.

Read the op-ed: “The symbolic goal of carbon neutrality in 2050 must not turn into an unbearable ecological bondage”

However, if we stick to the residential construction sector alone, there is no reason to say that this objective will be achieved.

Credible and mature solutions

CO emissions2 of the residential stock in France today amounts to just over 100 million tonnes per year, of which 33 million come from new homes and 74 million from existing homes. The gap to be crossed is immense, and the conditions are not met within our industry to be sure of crossing it. This would suppose, for example, to renovate 70% of the current residential park so that it reaches the level “low consumption building” (BBC) in 2050 and that the new constructions, including the processes to carry them out, pass quickly on systems. low-carbon!

Article reserved for our subscribers Read also Carbon-proof buildings

However, the commitment comes from the legislator carried by the company, which expresses itself on the subject, on the one hand, by the ballot boxes, admittedly still weakly, and, on the other hand, through important citizen movements.

The axis of decreasing or slowing down the production of new housing, sometimes presented as a solution, does not apply to the most essential need which consists in providing everyone with a dignified, healthy, pleasant and comfortable habitat. Everyone aspires to live better and live better. It is therefore our ways of living that must be changed.

Article reserved for our subscribers Read also How to build sustainable cities inspired by nature

Credible and mature solutions exist to drive the sector towards zero point: change the industrial processes for manufacturing components in the residential sector (decarbonization of concrete, materials and energy), change the construction processes themselves (off-site construction , bioclimatic design), change scale in the use of bio-based materials, change behavior to consume less and better, and finally store and share energy.

You have 35.86% of this article to read. The rest is for subscribers only.

" } ["wfw"]=> array(1) { ["commentrss"]=> string(98) "https://movs.world/carbon-neutrality-will-not-be-achieved-in-the-construction-sector-in-2050/feed/" } ["slash"]=> array(1) { ["comments"]=> string(1) "0" } ["summary"]=> string(0) "" ["atom_content"]=> string(4988) "

Lhe “builders” have over the centuries been able to support the development of our societies, from the most rudimentary housing to today’s mega-cities, by inventing the techniques and technologies that have enabled major transformations. The builders of modern times, all those involved in construction, once again have the opportunity to be at the rendezvous of history by taking up the environmental challenge, vital for our common home.

A century before our era, the Roman Vitruvius laid down the principle of an architecture which was to imitate nature, in the right proportions. In the industrial era, the American architect Frank Lloyd Wright (1867-1959) or the ecological essayist Pierre Rabhi have never ceased to alert designers so that nature is not forgotten for the sole benefit of consumption. . It is still necessary today to draw inspiration from it in order to reduce our environmental footprint and achieve the national objective of a carbon neutral contribution by 2050.

Read the op-ed: “The symbolic goal of carbon neutrality in 2050 must not turn into an unbearable ecological bondage”

However, if we stick to the residential construction sector alone, there is no reason to say that this objective will be achieved.

Credible and mature solutions

CO emissions2 of the residential stock in France today amounts to just over 100 million tonnes per year, of which 33 million come from new homes and 74 million from existing homes. The gap to be crossed is immense, and the conditions are not met within our industry to be sure of crossing it. This would suppose, for example, to renovate 70% of the current residential park so that it reaches the level “low consumption building” (BBC) in 2050 and that the new constructions, including the processes to carry them out, pass quickly on systems. low-carbon!

Article reserved for our subscribers Read also Carbon-proof buildings

However, the commitment comes from the legislator carried by the company, which expresses itself on the subject, on the one hand, by the ballot boxes, admittedly still weakly, and, on the other hand, through important citizen movements.

The axis of decreasing or slowing down the production of new housing, sometimes presented as a solution, does not apply to the most essential need which consists in providing everyone with a dignified, healthy, pleasant and comfortable habitat. Everyone aspires to live better and live better. It is therefore our ways of living that must be changed.

Article reserved for our subscribers Read also How to build sustainable cities inspired by nature

Credible and mature solutions exist to drive the sector towards zero point: change the industrial processes for manufacturing components in the residential sector (decarbonization of concrete, materials and energy), change the construction processes themselves (off-site construction , bioclimatic design), change scale in the use of bio-based materials, change behavior to consume less and better, and finally store and share energy.

You have 35.86% of this article to read. The rest is for subscribers only.

" ["date_timestamp"]=> int(1628475269) } [3]=> array(14) { ["title"]=> string(136) "“Elon Musk, Don Quixote of planetary nihilism, worshiped by the ignorance of a society totally disconnected from scientific reality”" ["link"]=> string(148) "https://movs.world/elon-musk-don-quixote-of-planetary-nihilism-worshiped-by-the-ignorance-of-a-society-totally-disconnected-from-scientific-reality/" ["comments"]=> string(156) "https://movs.world/elon-musk-don-quixote-of-planetary-nihilism-worshiped-by-the-ignorance-of-a-society-totally-disconnected-from-scientific-reality/#respond" ["dc"]=> array(1) { ["creator"]=> string(11) "Susan Hally" } ["pubdate"]=> string(31) "Sun, 08 Aug 2021 01:38:58 +0000" ["category"]=> string(104) "OpinionsdisconnectedDonElonignoranceMusknihilismplanetaryQuixoterealityscientificsocietytotallyworshiped" ["guid"]=> string(148) "https://movs.world/elon-musk-don-quixote-of-planetary-nihilism-worshiped-by-the-ignorance-of-a-society-totally-disconnected-from-scientific-reality/" ["description"]=> string(86) "“The avowed and repeated goal of Elon Musk is none other than the planet Mars..." ["content"]=> array(1) { ["encoded"]=> string(4236) "

Che recent times, with the success of small suborbital flights by tax-exempt billionaires wishing to develop (very) small niche space tourism, all the media have been enthusiastic about these successes considered spectacular. However, such flights have existed since… 1960 (!) With the US Air Force’s X15 aircraft, admittedly reserved for experienced pilots, including Neil Armstrong, the first lunar “tourist” 52 years ago.

The technological innovation of current machines is therefore very modest, the need for rocket engines is still relevant: impossible to leave the planet without a profusion of technological means, but at a disastrous environmental cost at all levels (funding, natural resources). and… pollution).

However, we have all dreamed of becoming astronauts, of escaping from Earth and discovering new worlds, science fiction novels in this regard carry a powerful imagination! But these are (science) -fiction novels and not science, should it be remembered?

“Unlimited” promises

If Elon Musk, with his company Space X, largely aided by NASA, and its many successes, is the most advanced, and runs the most serious of these companies – Reusable Falcon; Crew Dragon capsule supplying astronauts and equipment to the international space station; contract for the return of American astronauts to the Moon – we will notice that everything is done in a perfectly classic approach, that of space exploration developed by States for sixty years now, for partly commercial purposes, but sum quite classic, commercial satellites having always existed.

However, the avowed and repeated goal of Elon Musk is none other than the planet Mars, not for a few trips for technical and scientific purposes as were those of Apollo on the Moon, but for the purpose of installation. and above all of colonization (a word that has a strong connotation at the present time!) of the Red Planet, underlying the idea that, after the exhaustion of resources on Earth, Mars would extend its arms to us, in a kind of new Wild West with “unlimited” promises.

Article reserved for our subscribers Read also Visionary, ambitious, transgressive … Elon Musk, portrait of a free electron

But Mars is not, far from it, a habitable planet. It should be noted in passing that the concept of habitability, widely used by astrophysicists and astrobiologists, is a catch-all concept widely contested in the scientific community and that no precise definition can be given. Habitable by whom or by what? Habitable at what stage of planetary evolution or even biological evolution? Prebiotic chemistry, unicellular then multicellular bacteria, plants, animals?

You have 65.69% of this article to read. The rest is for subscribers only.

" } ["wfw"]=> array(1) { ["commentrss"]=> string(153) "https://movs.world/elon-musk-don-quixote-of-planetary-nihilism-worshiped-by-the-ignorance-of-a-society-totally-disconnected-from-scientific-reality/feed/" } ["slash"]=> array(1) { ["comments"]=> string(1) "0" } ["summary"]=> string(86) "“The avowed and repeated goal of Elon Musk is none other than the planet Mars..." ["atom_content"]=> string(4236) "

Che recent times, with the success of small suborbital flights by tax-exempt billionaires wishing to develop (very) small niche space tourism, all the media have been enthusiastic about these successes considered spectacular. However, such flights have existed since… 1960 (!) With the US Air Force’s X15 aircraft, admittedly reserved for experienced pilots, including Neil Armstrong, the first lunar “tourist” 52 years ago.

The technological innovation of current machines is therefore very modest, the need for rocket engines is still relevant: impossible to leave the planet without a profusion of technological means, but at a disastrous environmental cost at all levels (funding, natural resources). and… pollution).

However, we have all dreamed of becoming astronauts, of escaping from Earth and discovering new worlds, science fiction novels in this regard carry a powerful imagination! But these are (science) -fiction novels and not science, should it be remembered?

“Unlimited” promises

If Elon Musk, with his company Space X, largely aided by NASA, and its many successes, is the most advanced, and runs the most serious of these companies – Reusable Falcon; Crew Dragon capsule supplying astronauts and equipment to the international space station; contract for the return of American astronauts to the Moon – we will notice that everything is done in a perfectly classic approach, that of space exploration developed by States for sixty years now, for partly commercial purposes, but sum quite classic, commercial satellites having always existed.

However, the avowed and repeated goal of Elon Musk is none other than the planet Mars, not for a few trips for technical and scientific purposes as were those of Apollo on the Moon, but for the purpose of installation. and above all of colonization (a word that has a strong connotation at the present time!) of the Red Planet, underlying the idea that, after the exhaustion of resources on Earth, Mars would extend its arms to us, in a kind of new Wild West with “unlimited” promises.

Article reserved for our subscribers Read also Visionary, ambitious, transgressive … Elon Musk, portrait of a free electron

But Mars is not, far from it, a habitable planet. It should be noted in passing that the concept of habitability, widely used by astrophysicists and astrobiologists, is a catch-all concept widely contested in the scientific community and that no precise definition can be given. Habitable by whom or by what? Habitable at what stage of planetary evolution or even biological evolution? Prebiotic chemistry, unicellular then multicellular bacteria, plants, animals?

You have 65.69% of this article to read. The rest is for subscribers only.

" ["date_timestamp"]=> int(1628386738) } [4]=> array(14) { ["title"]=> string(38) "The Belarusian regime, shame of Europe" ["link"]=> string(57) "https://movs.world/the-belarusian-regime-shame-of-europe/" ["comments"]=> string(65) "https://movs.world/the-belarusian-regime-shame-of-europe/#respond" ["dc"]=> array(1) { ["creator"]=> string(11) "Susan Hally" } ["pubdate"]=> string(31) "Sat, 07 Aug 2021 09:06:56 +0000" ["category"]=> string(35) "OpinionsBelarusianEuroperegimeshame" ["guid"]=> string(57) "https://movs.world/the-belarusian-regime-shame-of-europe/" ["description"]=> string(85) "Editorial of the “World”. A year ago, on August 9, 2020, at the end of..." ["content"]=> array(1) { ["encoded"]=> string(5513) "

Editorial of the “World”. A year ago, on August 9, 2020, at the end of a campaign that had given rise to mad hope, Belarusian voters expressed their desire for change. At least that’s what the polls and independent counts at polling stations indicated. The president they wanted to leave, however, did not intend to cede a power he had held unchallenged since 1994. He falsified the results. Since then, a fierce repression fell on the citizens of this former Soviet republic who dared to express their opposition to the dictatorship of Alexander Lukashenko.

This despot survives thanks to the support of Moscow, and in particular of its political police, the FSB, which provides invaluable support to its accomplice in Minsk, the KGB, remained faithful to the original. After realizing that force was not enough to crush the massive protest, the Lukashenko regime switched to more targeted methods. In one year, more than 35,000 people were arrested and passed through Belarusian jails, where torture and ill-treatment are frequent.

Article reserved for our subscribers Read also In Minsk, the lost illusions of the “square of change”

The sentences are more and more severe. Journalists and intellectuals are being hunted down. Thus, one of the major figures of the protest, Maria Kolesnikova, a music teacher, was kidnapped in the middle of the street. As the police were about to deport her to neighboring Ukraine, she managed to jump out of the vehicle and tear up her passport to avoid deportation. The police then imprisoned her. His trial has just opened in Minsk; she faces twelve years in prison. The crackdown is so severe that exiled opposition leader Svetlana Tsikhanovskaya, whose husband is also in jail, has decided not to call a protest for the August 9 anniversary.

Series of sanctions

Lukashenko does not stop there. Its services are also active abroad against opponents who have fled the regime. In May, he diverted a Ryanair plane to Minsk to arrest an opposition journalist exiled in Vilnius (Lithuania) and present on board. On August 2, when a Belarusian athlete defected to Tokyo to escape a forced return after criticizing her team’s executives, another of her compatriots, Vitali Chichov, 26, was found hanged in a park in Kiev. . The young man was in charge of welcoming Belarusian refugees in Ukraine, where they would now number in the tens of thousands.

Article reserved for our subscribers Read also “Belarusians go to jail to defend the border between true and false. Let’s not forget them ”

Not content with persecuting its citizens, Lukashenko turned Belarus into a rogue state on the European continent. Today, he shamelessly wields the weapon of migration: Lithuania has for weeks been faced with a massive influx of asylum seekers from Iraq, Syria and Africa who arrive through the Belarusian border after having been flown to Minsk.

The European Union (EU) must defend itself. She no longer recognizes Mr. Lukashenko as the legitimate president and has given refuge to Svetlana Tsikhanovskaïa as well as to her exiled compatriots. It also took a series of sanctions against Minsk. It must continue in this direction, favoring measures which punish those responsible for repression and penalize the regime. It is also important that the United States and the United Kingdom, where the leader of the opposition in exile has just been received at the highest level, coordinate their action with that of the EU, for more efficiency.

But neither in Brussels, nor in London, nor in Washington, we must not lose sight of the fact that, behind this regime which has become the shame of Europe, it is President Vladimir Poutine who holds, in Moscow, the key to the fate of Alexander Lukashenko.

Read also the column: “A new iron curtain has been erected in eastern Europe, where the logic of stagnation-repression freezes all political development”

Also listen In Belarus, opponents face torture and repression

The world

" } ["wfw"]=> array(1) { ["commentrss"]=> string(62) "https://movs.world/the-belarusian-regime-shame-of-europe/feed/" } ["slash"]=> array(1) { ["comments"]=> string(1) "0" } ["summary"]=> string(85) "Editorial of the “World”. A year ago, on August 9, 2020, at the end of..." ["atom_content"]=> string(5513) "

Editorial of the “World”. A year ago, on August 9, 2020, at the end of a campaign that had given rise to mad hope, Belarusian voters expressed their desire for change. At least that’s what the polls and independent counts at polling stations indicated. The president they wanted to leave, however, did not intend to cede a power he had held unchallenged since 1994. He falsified the results. Since then, a fierce repression fell on the citizens of this former Soviet republic who dared to express their opposition to the dictatorship of Alexander Lukashenko.

This despot survives thanks to the support of Moscow, and in particular of its political police, the FSB, which provides invaluable support to its accomplice in Minsk, the KGB, remained faithful to the original. After realizing that force was not enough to crush the massive protest, the Lukashenko regime switched to more targeted methods. In one year, more than 35,000 people were arrested and passed through Belarusian jails, where torture and ill-treatment are frequent.

Article reserved for our subscribers Read also In Minsk, the lost illusions of the “square of change”

The sentences are more and more severe. Journalists and intellectuals are being hunted down. Thus, one of the major figures of the protest, Maria Kolesnikova, a music teacher, was kidnapped in the middle of the street. As the police were about to deport her to neighboring Ukraine, she managed to jump out of the vehicle and tear up her passport to avoid deportation. The police then imprisoned her. His trial has just opened in Minsk; she faces twelve years in prison. The crackdown is so severe that exiled opposition leader Svetlana Tsikhanovskaya, whose husband is also in jail, has decided not to call a protest for the August 9 anniversary.

Series of sanctions

Lukashenko does not stop there. Its services are also active abroad against opponents who have fled the regime. In May, he diverted a Ryanair plane to Minsk to arrest an opposition journalist exiled in Vilnius (Lithuania) and present on board. On August 2, when a Belarusian athlete defected to Tokyo to escape a forced return after criticizing her team’s executives, another of her compatriots, Vitali Chichov, 26, was found hanged in a park in Kiev. . The young man was in charge of welcoming Belarusian refugees in Ukraine, where they would now number in the tens of thousands.

Article reserved for our subscribers Read also “Belarusians go to jail to defend the border between true and false. Let’s not forget them ”

Not content with persecuting its citizens, Lukashenko turned Belarus into a rogue state on the European continent. Today, he shamelessly wields the weapon of migration: Lithuania has for weeks been faced with a massive influx of asylum seekers from Iraq, Syria and Africa who arrive through the Belarusian border after having been flown to Minsk.

The European Union (EU) must defend itself. She no longer recognizes Mr. Lukashenko as the legitimate president and has given refuge to Svetlana Tsikhanovskaïa as well as to her exiled compatriots. It also took a series of sanctions against Minsk. It must continue in this direction, favoring measures which punish those responsible for repression and penalize the regime. It is also important that the United States and the United Kingdom, where the leader of the opposition in exile has just been received at the highest level, coordinate their action with that of the EU, for more efficiency.

But neither in Brussels, nor in London, nor in Washington, we must not lose sight of the fact that, behind this regime which has become the shame of Europe, it is President Vladimir Poutine who holds, in Moscow, the key to the fate of Alexander Lukashenko.

Read also the column: “A new iron curtain has been erected in eastern Europe, where the logic of stagnation-repression freezes all political development”

Also listen In Belarus, opponents face torture and repression

The world

" ["date_timestamp"]=> int(1628327216) } [5]=> array(14) { ["title"]=> string(91) "“The international community must affirm its rejection of the Lebanese political class”" ["link"]=> string(105) "https://movs.world/the-international-community-must-affirm-its-rejection-of-the-lebanese-political-class/" ["comments"]=> string(113) "https://movs.world/the-international-community-must-affirm-its-rejection-of-the-lebanese-political-class/#respond" ["dc"]=> array(1) { ["creator"]=> string(11) "Susan Hally" } ["pubdate"]=> string(31) "Wed, 04 Aug 2021 01:50:09 +0000" ["category"]=> string(67) "OpinionsaffirmclasscommunityinternationalLebanesepoliticalrejection" ["guid"]=> string(105) "https://movs.world/the-international-community-must-affirm-its-rejection-of-the-lebanese-political-class/" ["description"]=> string(88) "Relatives of the victims of the August 4, 2020 explosion in the city’s port, in..." ["content"]=> array(1) { ["encoded"]=> string(4152) "

“Humanitarian crisis”, selon l’ONU ; “One of the worst economic crises in modern history”, according to the World Bank; ” the Titanic without the orchestra “, according to Jean-Yves Le Drian, Minister for Europe and Foreign Affairs, in an interview with Figaro December 14, 2020… For a while now, institutions and international media have been competing with alarmist formulas on Lebanon. If these reflect the urgency of the situation – after the vertiginous devaluation of the pound and hyperinflation that led to rampant poverty, the country is now facing shortages of gasoline, electricity and medicines – they have the perverse effect of presenting this crisis as an inevitable plague. This rhetoric “depoliticizes”: it verbally obscures the political dimension of a situation which is the fruit of choices made by the ruling classes; it implies that the Lebanese crisis is of a technical or humanitarian nature, whereas it is fundamentally political.

Read also: A year after the explosion of the port of Beirut, the investigation is slipping and a whole people, at the end of their tether, demands truth and justice

Technical, first of all: the carelessness of the leaders is read as a “Lack of skills” ; We are talking about “Financial crisis” or from “Socio-economic crisis” that must be overcome through “Good governance measures” or from ” fight against corruption “. Humanitarian, then: Lebanon is transformed into an object of charity, as illustrated by emergency aid. While a new international conference on Lebanon, with the support of the UN, is organized by President Emmanuel Macron on Wednesday August 4, exactly one year after the explosion in the port of Beirut, the seeds of this approach have been planted during previous conferences in Paris, London and Brussels, whose unfinished promises now resonate like sad litanies, symbols of the futility of an aid system at the end of its rope.

Article reserved for our subscribers Read also In Beirut, the Skyline tower, “symbol of the horror of August 4”

Officially, the international community is still awaiting the formation of a government and the implementation of reforms. Attitude of denial: nearly a year after the resignation of the government, this formation is still stumbling over quarrels over portfolios, and Saad Hariri, appointed prime minister in October 2020, finally threw in the towel on July 15. In such a deleterious context, each additional mark of confidence granted to the elites directly contributes to the impoverishment of the population.

Distribute losses fairly

You have 60.45% of this article to read. The rest is for subscribers only.

" } ["wfw"]=> array(1) { ["commentrss"]=> string(110) "https://movs.world/the-international-community-must-affirm-its-rejection-of-the-lebanese-political-class/feed/" } ["slash"]=> array(1) { ["comments"]=> string(1) "0" } ["summary"]=> string(88) "Relatives of the victims of the August 4, 2020 explosion in the city’s port, in..." ["atom_content"]=> string(4152) "

“Humanitarian crisis”, selon l’ONU ; “One of the worst economic crises in modern history”, according to the World Bank; ” the Titanic without the orchestra “, according to Jean-Yves Le Drian, Minister for Europe and Foreign Affairs, in an interview with Figaro December 14, 2020… For a while now, institutions and international media have been competing with alarmist formulas on Lebanon. If these reflect the urgency of the situation – after the vertiginous devaluation of the pound and hyperinflation that led to rampant poverty, the country is now facing shortages of gasoline, electricity and medicines – they have the perverse effect of presenting this crisis as an inevitable plague. This rhetoric “depoliticizes”: it verbally obscures the political dimension of a situation which is the fruit of choices made by the ruling classes; it implies that the Lebanese crisis is of a technical or humanitarian nature, whereas it is fundamentally political.

Read also: A year after the explosion of the port of Beirut, the investigation is slipping and a whole people, at the end of their tether, demands truth and justice

Technical, first of all: the carelessness of the leaders is read as a “Lack of skills” ; We are talking about “Financial crisis” or from “Socio-economic crisis” that must be overcome through “Good governance measures” or from ” fight against corruption “. Humanitarian, then: Lebanon is transformed into an object of charity, as illustrated by emergency aid. While a new international conference on Lebanon, with the support of the UN, is organized by President Emmanuel Macron on Wednesday August 4, exactly one year after the explosion in the port of Beirut, the seeds of this approach have been planted during previous conferences in Paris, London and Brussels, whose unfinished promises now resonate like sad litanies, symbols of the futility of an aid system at the end of its rope.

Article reserved for our subscribers Read also In Beirut, the Skyline tower, “symbol of the horror of August 4”

Officially, the international community is still awaiting the formation of a government and the implementation of reforms. Attitude of denial: nearly a year after the resignation of the government, this formation is still stumbling over quarrels over portfolios, and Saad Hariri, appointed prime minister in October 2020, finally threw in the towel on July 15. In such a deleterious context, each additional mark of confidence granted to the elites directly contributes to the impoverishment of the population.

Distribute losses fairly

You have 60.45% of this article to read. The rest is for subscribers only.

" ["date_timestamp"]=> int(1628041809) } [6]=> array(14) { ["title"]=> string(37) "“Red lines must be clearly drawn”" ["link"]=> string(51) "https://movs.world/red-lines-must-be-clearly-drawn/" ["comments"]=> string(59) "https://movs.world/red-lines-must-be-clearly-drawn/#respond" ["dc"]=> array(1) { ["creator"]=> string(11) "Susan Hally" } ["pubdate"]=> string(31) "Tue, 03 Aug 2021 04:03:33 +0000" ["category"]=> string(21) "Opinionsdrawnlinesred" ["guid"]=> string(51) "https://movs.world/red-lines-must-be-clearly-drawn/" ["description"]=> string(100) "Demonstration against the establishment of a health pass, place du Trocadéro, in Paris, July 24,..." ["content"]=> array(1) { ["encoded"]=> string(3817) "

AAdopted by Parliament on Sunday July 25, the law relating to “management of the health crisis” requires the presentation of a complete vaccination schedule or a negative test access to most areas of daily life. At the same time, for the third consecutive weekend, hundreds of thousands of people gathered around France, a sign of great concern in the middle of summer on the part of antivax of course, but above all from ordinary citizens worried about the ‘infringement of individual freedoms.

Because imposed by the President of the Republic without any prior consultation other than that of the health defense council, and presented as the only alternative to a new confinement, the introduction of this health pass raises major questions, which cannot be summed up as a confrontation. between supporters and opponents of vaccination.

The essential : What is contained in the bill definitively adopted by Parliament

It is first necessary to measure what such a device has unprecedented, beyond even the method followed and the indisputable attack on the freedoms to come and go, and of conscience. Unlike the successive measures implemented for eighteen months, the health pass will indeed require each citizen to justify, on request, his viral situation – vaccination or negative test – to perform the most banal acts of life. in society: drink a coffee, have lunch on the terrace, go to the cinema. But above all, it will entrust the control of these health data to other citizens, in charge of the establishments concerned, who have never had any authority in the matter.

Fraud and differential treatment

Such a device may already, in practice, be very difficult to implement. How to imagine that a bistro refuses, to a friend and regular customer, the service of a café on the terrace, on the sole ground that this customer could not justify his health data? How can we imagine that an employer easily indulges, on an employee with whom he is fully satisfied, the control of his health pass at the risk of having to suspend him in his activity?

Applied to too extensive spheres of social life, the law on the health pass will therefore have every chance of not being correctly implemented, causing fraud and differentiated treatment to proliferate. Unless, of course, a general control system, office after office, table after table, is implemented by the police. The cafeteria controller, in turn controlled, will then have to answer before the criminal judge, after administrative closure, for his refusal to turn a customer away …

You have 52.61% of this article to read. The rest is for subscribers only.

" } ["wfw"]=> array(1) { ["commentrss"]=> string(56) "https://movs.world/red-lines-must-be-clearly-drawn/feed/" } ["slash"]=> array(1) { ["comments"]=> string(1) "0" } ["summary"]=> string(100) "Demonstration against the establishment of a health pass, place du Trocadéro, in Paris, July 24,..." ["atom_content"]=> string(3817) "

AAdopted by Parliament on Sunday July 25, the law relating to “management of the health crisis” requires the presentation of a complete vaccination schedule or a negative test access to most areas of daily life. At the same time, for the third consecutive weekend, hundreds of thousands of people gathered around France, a sign of great concern in the middle of summer on the part of antivax of course, but above all from ordinary citizens worried about the ‘infringement of individual freedoms.

Because imposed by the President of the Republic without any prior consultation other than that of the health defense council, and presented as the only alternative to a new confinement, the introduction of this health pass raises major questions, which cannot be summed up as a confrontation. between supporters and opponents of vaccination.

The essential : What is contained in the bill definitively adopted by Parliament

It is first necessary to measure what such a device has unprecedented, beyond even the method followed and the indisputable attack on the freedoms to come and go, and of conscience. Unlike the successive measures implemented for eighteen months, the health pass will indeed require each citizen to justify, on request, his viral situation – vaccination or negative test – to perform the most banal acts of life. in society: drink a coffee, have lunch on the terrace, go to the cinema. But above all, it will entrust the control of these health data to other citizens, in charge of the establishments concerned, who have never had any authority in the matter.

Fraud and differential treatment

Such a device may already, in practice, be very difficult to implement. How to imagine that a bistro refuses, to a friend and regular customer, the service of a café on the terrace, on the sole ground that this customer could not justify his health data? How can we imagine that an employer easily indulges, on an employee with whom he is fully satisfied, the control of his health pass at the risk of having to suspend him in his activity?

Applied to too extensive spheres of social life, the law on the health pass will therefore have every chance of not being correctly implemented, causing fraud and differentiated treatment to proliferate. Unless, of course, a general control system, office after office, table after table, is implemented by the police. The cafeteria controller, in turn controlled, will then have to answer before the criminal judge, after administrative closure, for his refusal to turn a customer away …

You have 52.61% of this article to read. The rest is for subscribers only.

" ["date_timestamp"]=> int(1627963413) } [7]=> array(14) { ["title"]=> string(53) "Ava Gardner, mermaid of Catalonia in Franco’s Spain" ["link"]=> string(69) "https://movs.world/ava-gardner-mermaid-of-catalonia-in-francos-spain/" ["comments"]=> string(77) "https://movs.world/ava-gardner-mermaid-of-catalonia-in-francos-spain/#respond" ["dc"]=> array(1) { ["creator"]=> string(11) "Susan Hally" } ["pubdate"]=> string(31) "Sun, 01 Aug 2021 17:04:15 +0000" ["category"]=> string(46) "OpinionsAvaCataloniaFrancosGardnermermaidSpain" ["guid"]=> string(69) "https://movs.world/ava-gardner-mermaid-of-catalonia-in-francos-spain/" ["description"]=> string(112) "By Isabelle Piquer Posted today at 7:00 p.m. Reserved for our subscribers Story“Hollywood in Franco’s..." ["content"]=> array(1) { ["encoded"]=> string(4806) "

By Isabelle Piquer

Posted today at 7:00 p.m.

Hurricane Ava Gardner arrived in Tossa de Mar in April 1950. Neither the goddess of the screen nor the tiny village of the Costa Brava, in Catalonia, would emerge unscathed from this encounter. The American actress arrives in Spain to shoot Pandora, a film directed by American director Albert Lewin. She is 27 years old and is not yet a big star. We then talk more about her two marriages and her two divorces, the fact that billionaire Howard Hughes courted her, or even harassed her, than about her acting skills. Her sister Bappie, who has chaperoned her since the start of her career, accompanies her.

In his autobiography, Ava. Briefs (Presses de la Renaissance, 1991), released a few months after her death, the actress confides that of all her films, Pandora is probably one of the lesser known, outside the circle of moviegoers. But she adds: “Yet nothing that I did, neither before nor after, mattered so much. ” This feature film, the first in color for her, will propel her career to the top. And then, it is the opportunity for her to leave the United States for the first time. It allows him to discover England, and especially Spain, where most of the filming takes place.

Ava Gardner, in Andalusian dress, poses during the April Feria in Seville, where she was invited by the director general of tourism, Luis Antonio Bolin, on April 17, 1950.

It was then a country where the dictator Francisco Franco (1892-1975) reigned supreme, still marked by civil war and shortages, isolated in this post-war Europe and which did not keep pace with modernity. galloping from its main neighbors. This still peasant Spain, where cultural traditions are strong, is a shock to her. To the point, thereafter, of spending a large part of his life in Madrid. “It just took me a little trip never to look back », writes the actress in her memoirs.

Lovers of the Costa Brava

Tossa de Mar is chosen by chance for the shoot. Albert Puig Palau, a Catalan textile industrialist, who likes to hang out with artists and play patron, invited Albert Lewin to his superb residence in Palamos, not far from Tossa, where he used to organize lavish parties. The filmmaker accepts, because he is looking for virgin landscapes for his next film. He visits the Costa Brava and immediately falls in love with it. This is where he will recreate the village he names Esperanza in Pandora.

The film begins with a fishing scene. During the first minutes, three men with features chiselled by the sea pull up their nets while speaking a strong Catalan, an exceptional thing in a Spain where the dictatorship fiercely imposes Castilian. They have a hard time pulling up their hold. “Do you think we’re holding a whale?” “, launches one of the fishermen, laughing. Suddenly they freeze. Two corpses are entangled in their mesh, those of the superb Pandora Reynolds (Ava Gardner) and of Hendrick van der Zee (James Mason), a mysterious Dutch navigator, living alone on his boat, where he paints enigmatic portraits.

You have 85.62% of this article to read. The rest is for subscribers only.

" } ["wfw"]=> array(1) { ["commentrss"]=> string(74) "https://movs.world/ava-gardner-mermaid-of-catalonia-in-francos-spain/feed/" } ["slash"]=> array(1) { ["comments"]=> string(1) "0" } ["summary"]=> string(112) "By Isabelle Piquer Posted today at 7:00 p.m. Reserved for our subscribers Story“Hollywood in Franco’s..." ["atom_content"]=> string(4806) "

By Isabelle Piquer

Posted today at 7:00 p.m.

Hurricane Ava Gardner arrived in Tossa de Mar in April 1950. Neither the goddess of the screen nor the tiny village of the Costa Brava, in Catalonia, would emerge unscathed from this encounter. The American actress arrives in Spain to shoot Pandora, a film directed by American director Albert Lewin. She is 27 years old and is not yet a big star. We then talk more about her two marriages and her two divorces, the fact that billionaire Howard Hughes courted her, or even harassed her, than about her acting skills. Her sister Bappie, who has chaperoned her since the start of her career, accompanies her.

In his autobiography, Ava. Briefs (Presses de la Renaissance, 1991), released a few months after her death, the actress confides that of all her films, Pandora is probably one of the lesser known, outside the circle of moviegoers. But she adds: “Yet nothing that I did, neither before nor after, mattered so much. ” This feature film, the first in color for her, will propel her career to the top. And then, it is the opportunity for her to leave the United States for the first time. It allows him to discover England, and especially Spain, where most of the filming takes place.

Ava Gardner, in Andalusian dress, poses during the April Feria in Seville, where she was invited by the director general of tourism, Luis Antonio Bolin, on April 17, 1950.

It was then a country where the dictator Francisco Franco (1892-1975) reigned supreme, still marked by civil war and shortages, isolated in this post-war Europe and which did not keep pace with modernity. galloping from its main neighbors. This still peasant Spain, where cultural traditions are strong, is a shock to her. To the point, thereafter, of spending a large part of his life in Madrid. “It just took me a little trip never to look back », writes the actress in her memoirs.

Lovers of the Costa Brava

Tossa de Mar is chosen by chance for the shoot. Albert Puig Palau, a Catalan textile industrialist, who likes to hang out with artists and play patron, invited Albert Lewin to his superb residence in Palamos, not far from Tossa, where he used to organize lavish parties. The filmmaker accepts, because he is looking for virgin landscapes for his next film. He visits the Costa Brava and immediately falls in love with it. This is where he will recreate the village he names Esperanza in Pandora.

The film begins with a fishing scene. During the first minutes, three men with features chiselled by the sea pull up their nets while speaking a strong Catalan, an exceptional thing in a Spain where the dictatorship fiercely imposes Castilian. They have a hard time pulling up their hold. “Do you think we’re holding a whale?” “, launches one of the fishermen, laughing. Suddenly they freeze. Two corpses are entangled in their mesh, those of the superb Pandora Reynolds (Ava Gardner) and of Hendrick van der Zee (James Mason), a mysterious Dutch navigator, living alone on his boat, where he paints enigmatic portraits.

You have 85.62% of this article to read. The rest is for subscribers only.

" ["date_timestamp"]=> int(1627837455) } [8]=> array(14) { ["title"]=> string(70) "“Tunisian democracy, between temporary breakdown and lasting halt”" ["link"]=> string(83) "https://movs.world/tunisian-democracy-between-temporary-breakdown-and-lasting-halt/" ["comments"]=> string(91) "https://movs.world/tunisian-democracy-between-temporary-breakdown-and-lasting-halt/#respond" ["dc"]=> array(1) { ["creator"]=> string(11) "Susan Hally" } ["pubdate"]=> string(31) "Fri, 30 Jul 2021 03:18:21 +0000" ["category"]=> string(55) "OpinionsbreakdownDemocracyhältlastingtemporaryTunisian" ["guid"]=> string(83) "https://movs.world/tunisian-democracy-between-temporary-breakdown-and-lasting-halt/" ["description"]=> string(91) "Support from Tunisian President Kaïs Saïed in front of Parliament in Tunis on July 26,..." ["content"]=> array(1) { ["encoded"]=> string(3888) "

EIs this due to the centrality of the constitutional idea in its political history for more than a century and a half? In any case, it seems that Tunisia has specialized in a particular method of seizing power, that of the constitutional coup. Former President Ben Ali used it to overthrow old leader Habib Bourguiba on November 7, 1987.

Thirty-four years and a revolution later, it is also by invoking the Constitution that President Kaïs Saïed carried out, on Sunday July 25, a coup by grabbing, by virtue of a very personal reading of the ‘Article 80 of the Basic Law, the totality of power. With the green light from the army, he now concentrates in his hands the executive, legislative and judicial functions that the 2014 Constitution took care to separate, and even to fragment with regard to the executive.

Article reserved for our subscribers Read also Tunisia plunged into the unknown after President Kaïs Saïed’s coup

The question now is whether it is a temporary breakdown in the chaotic but stubborn construction of Tunisian democracy or a lasting halt to the latter. Mr. Saïed was in fact impatiently waiting to cross the Rubicon. Since his election in October 2019, he has continued to want to extend his prerogatives and call for a modification of the Constitution which would give power to the people he claims to be.

The opportunity to take action was provided to him by the descent into the abyss of a political class that has shown since the 2011 revolution, but especially for two years, the proof of its inability to meet the challenges posed by a country in the midst of political, economic and social collapse.

Alignment of planets

In fact, Mr. Saïed benefited from an exceptionally favorable alignment of the planets to take action. The Islamist Ennahda party has been totally discredited by its clientelist and prebendary practices and an exercise of power that it has practically monopolized since October 2011. Focusing on its own interests, it has provoked in less than ten years a radical rejection as evidenced by looting suffered its premises throughout the country, including in its strongholds, during the demonstrations of July 25. It was therefore easy for the Head of State to give him the coup de grace.

The popular classes, exhausted by the increase in the cost of living, the permanence of mass unemployment, the spread of corruption, to which was added the gravity of the health crisis, disgusted by the behavior of its elected officials and sensitive to the populist rhetoric of the Head of State, could only approve of his declared intention to put an end to the mismanagement.

You have 54.38% of this article to read. The rest is for subscribers only.

" } ["wfw"]=> array(1) { ["commentrss"]=> string(88) "https://movs.world/tunisian-democracy-between-temporary-breakdown-and-lasting-halt/feed/" } ["slash"]=> array(1) { ["comments"]=> string(1) "0" } ["summary"]=> string(91) "Support from Tunisian President Kaïs Saïed in front of Parliament in Tunis on July 26,..." ["atom_content"]=> string(3888) "

EIs this due to the centrality of the constitutional idea in its political history for more than a century and a half? In any case, it seems that Tunisia has specialized in a particular method of seizing power, that of the constitutional coup. Former President Ben Ali used it to overthrow old leader Habib Bourguiba on November 7, 1987.

Thirty-four years and a revolution later, it is also by invoking the Constitution that President Kaïs Saïed carried out, on Sunday July 25, a coup by grabbing, by virtue of a very personal reading of the ‘Article 80 of the Basic Law, the totality of power. With the green light from the army, he now concentrates in his hands the executive, legislative and judicial functions that the 2014 Constitution took care to separate, and even to fragment with regard to the executive.

Article reserved for our subscribers Read also Tunisia plunged into the unknown after President Kaïs Saïed’s coup

The question now is whether it is a temporary breakdown in the chaotic but stubborn construction of Tunisian democracy or a lasting halt to the latter. Mr. Saïed was in fact impatiently waiting to cross the Rubicon. Since his election in October 2019, he has continued to want to extend his prerogatives and call for a modification of the Constitution which would give power to the people he claims to be.

The opportunity to take action was provided to him by the descent into the abyss of a political class that has shown since the 2011 revolution, but especially for two years, the proof of its inability to meet the challenges posed by a country in the midst of political, economic and social collapse.

Alignment of planets

In fact, Mr. Saïed benefited from an exceptionally favorable alignment of the planets to take action. The Islamist Ennahda party has been totally discredited by its clientelist and prebendary practices and an exercise of power that it has practically monopolized since October 2011. Focusing on its own interests, it has provoked in less than ten years a radical rejection as evidenced by looting suffered its premises throughout the country, including in its strongholds, during the demonstrations of July 25. It was therefore easy for the Head of State to give him the coup de grace.

The popular classes, exhausted by the increase in the cost of living, the permanence of mass unemployment, the spread of corruption, to which was added the gravity of the health crisis, disgusted by the behavior of its elected officials and sensitive to the populist rhetoric of the Head of State, could only approve of his declared intention to put an end to the mismanagement.

You have 54.38% of this article to read. The rest is for subscribers only.

" ["date_timestamp"]=> int(1627615101) } [9]=> array(14) { ["title"]=> string(119) "“The Covid-19 pandemic could, like those of cholera in the 19th century, lead to a new revolution in public health”" ["link"]=> string(131) "https://movs.world/the-covid-19-pandemic-could-like-those-of-cholera-in-the-19th-century-lead-to-a-new-revolution-in-public-health/" ["comments"]=> string(139) "https://movs.world/the-covid-19-pandemic-could-like-those-of-cholera-in-the-19th-century-lead-to-a-new-revolution-in-public-health/#respond" ["dc"]=> array(1) { ["creator"]=> string(11) "Susan Hally" } ["pubdate"]=> string(31) "Thu, 29 Jul 2021 02:28:04 +0000" ["category"]=> string(67) "Opinions19thcenturycholeraCovid19healthleadpandemicpublicrevolution" ["guid"]=> string(131) "https://movs.world/the-covid-19-pandemic-could-like-those-of-cholera-in-the-19th-century-lead-to-a-new-revolution-in-public-health/" ["description"]=> string(122) "In an ephemeral vaccination center installed in a campsite, in Argelès-sur-Mer (Pyrénées-Orientales), July 23, 2021...." ["content"]=> array(1) { ["encoded"]=> string(3964) "

Lhe development of several SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in one year has been rightly hailed as a remarkable advance in scientific and medical research. But if this contributes, of course, to the increase of human lifespan, the importance of public health policies should not be minimized.

The tremendous increase in longevity during the XXe century is thus largely linked to the policies introduced following the five major cholera epidemics which plagued Europe in the previous century, in 1831-1832, 1848-1854, 1866-1867 and 1888-1889.

Cholera is a frightening disease which marked the collective imagination, the patient being able to dry out very quickly, to the point of becoming “blue” just before dying, hence the expression “a blue scare”. In 1832, 100,000 French (out of 33 million) died of cholera. The capital is particularly affected, in particular the poor districts, with 20,000 deaths among the 800,000 Parisians.

The works of Haussmann, children of cholera

In a tense social context, the French population is then reluctant to health constraints, and political leaders refuse to declare cholera a contagious disease. Changing habits is difficult, like today. Economic interests also often take precedence over public health. But a collection of mortality data was set up, which in 1848, during the second epidemic, made it possible to understand that water was the main vector for the spread of cholera.

Article reserved for our subscribers Read also Plague, cholera, tuberculosis … epidemics have shaped our cities

In the midst of the industrial revolution and while the colonial conquest was in full swing, the development of the railroad and the launch of new maritime links worsened the situation. More than ten international conferences are organized in order to limit the spread of the pandemic, without many concrete decisions. But laws are passed in the UK to prevent companies from dumping their wastewater into the Thames.

The shock of the second epidemic (1848-1854) will also greatly contribute to the launch, in France, of large-scale public policies to improve hygiene and living conditions. Laws were passed in 1850 to fight against unsanitary housing, and hygiene education took an increasing place in schools. Large cities, like Paris, are totally transformed with the creation of wide arteries and buildings served by running water, as well as a modern sewer network of more than 500 kilometers. The work of Haussmann, begun in 1852, is the children of cholera.

You have 38.8% of this article left to read. The rest is for subscribers only.

" } ["wfw"]=> array(1) { ["commentrss"]=> string(136) "https://movs.world/the-covid-19-pandemic-could-like-those-of-cholera-in-the-19th-century-lead-to-a-new-revolution-in-public-health/feed/" } ["slash"]=> array(1) { ["comments"]=> string(1) "0" } ["summary"]=> string(122) "In an ephemeral vaccination center installed in a campsite, in Argelès-sur-Mer (Pyrénées-Orientales), July 23, 2021...." ["atom_content"]=> string(3964) "

Lhe development of several SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in one year has been rightly hailed as a remarkable advance in scientific and medical research. But if this contributes, of course, to the increase of human lifespan, the importance of public health policies should not be minimized.

The tremendous increase in longevity during the XXe century is thus largely linked to the policies introduced following the five major cholera epidemics which plagued Europe in the previous century, in 1831-1832, 1848-1854, 1866-1867 and 1888-1889.

Cholera is a frightening disease which marked the collective imagination, the patient being able to dry out very quickly, to the point of becoming “blue” just before dying, hence the expression “a blue scare”. In 1832, 100,000 French (out of 33 million) died of cholera. The capital is particularly affected, in particular the poor districts, with 20,000 deaths among the 800,000 Parisians.

The works of Haussmann, children of cholera

In a tense social context, the French population is then reluctant to health constraints, and political leaders refuse to declare cholera a contagious disease. Changing habits is difficult, like today. Economic interests also often take precedence over public health. But a collection of mortality data was set up, which in 1848, during the second epidemic, made it possible to understand that water was the main vector for the spread of cholera.

Article reserved for our subscribers Read also Plague, cholera, tuberculosis … epidemics have shaped our cities

In the midst of the industrial revolution and while the colonial conquest was in full swing, the development of the railroad and the launch of new maritime links worsened the situation. More than ten international conferences are organized in order to limit the spread of the pandemic, without many concrete decisions. But laws are passed in the UK to prevent companies from dumping their wastewater into the Thames.

The shock of the second epidemic (1848-1854) will also greatly contribute to the launch, in France, of large-scale public policies to improve hygiene and living conditions. Laws were passed in 1850 to fight against unsanitary housing, and hygiene education took an increasing place in schools. Large cities, like Paris, are totally transformed with the creation of wide arteries and buildings served by running water, as well as a modern sewer network of more than 500 kilometers. The work of Haussmann, begun in 1852, is the children of cholera.

You have 38.8% of this article left to read. The rest is for subscribers only.

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